人は死後どうなるのでしょうか?

質問: 人は死後どうなるのでしょうか?

答え: 死後どうなるかという質問は混乱する質問です。聖書は人が最後の永遠の行き先へたどり着くのがいつかについてはっきりしていません。聖書は人が死んだその瞬間に、その人がイエスキリストを救い主として受け入れていたか否かで天国か地獄に連れて行かれると言っています。 信じた人は死後には体から離れて主と共にあります。(第2コリント5章6-8節;ピリピ1章23節;)信じない人は死後に永遠の罰が地獄で待っているというわけです。(ルカ16章22-23節)

この辺から、死後どうなるかについて混乱してくることもあります。黙示録20章11-15節で、地獄にいる人みんなが火の池に投げ込まれる描写がしてあります。黙示録21章と22章では新しい天と新しい地に付いて書いてあります。ですから、死後、最終的な復活までは ‘一時的な’天国と地獄にいると思われます。人の最終的な行き先は変わらないけれど、永遠に人が行く‘場所’は変わるのです。 死後ある時点で、信じる者は新しい天と地に送られます。(黙示録21章1節). 信じない人は死後のある時点で火の池に投げ込まれるのです。(黙示録20章11-15節) これらが最終的なすべての人の行き先です。それは人がイエスキリストを信じ、その信仰のゆえに罪からの救いを受けたかどうかのみで決まるのです。


Question: "What happens after death?"

Answer: Within the Christian faith, there is a significant amount of confusion regarding what happens after death. Some hold that after death, everyone “sleeps” until the final judgment, after which everyone will be sent to heaven or hell. Others believe that at the moment of death, people are instantly judged and sent to their eternal destinations. Still others claim that when people die, their souls/spirits are sent to a “temporary” heaven or hell, to await the final resurrection, the final judgment, and then the finality of their eternal destination. So, what exactly does the Bible say happens after death?

First, for the believer in Jesus Christ, the Bible tells us that after death believers’ souls/spirits are taken to heaven, because their sins are forgiven by having received Christ as Savior (John 3:16, 18, 36). For believers, death is to be “away from the body and at home with the Lord” (2 Corinthians 5:6-8; Philippians 1:23). However, passages such as 1 Corinthians 15:50-54 and 1 Thessalonians 4:13-17 describe believers being resurrected and given glorified bodies. If believers go to be with Christ immediately after death, what is the purpose of this resurrection? It seems that while the souls/spirits of believers go to be with Christ immediately after death, the physical body remains in the grave “sleeping.” At the resurrection of believers, the physical body is resurrected, glorified, and then reunited with the soul/spirit. This reunited and glorified body-soul-spirit will be the possession of believers for eternity in the new heavens and new earth (Revelation 21-22).

Second, for those who do not receive Jesus Christ as Savior, death means everlasting punishment. However, similar to the destiny of believers, unbelievers also seem to be sent immediately to a temporary holding place, to await their final resurrection, judgment, and eternal destiny. Luke 16:22-23 describes a rich man being tormented immediately after death. Revelation 20:11-15 describes all the unbelieving dead being resurrected, judged at the great white throne, and then being cast into the lake of fire. Unbelievers, then, are not sent to hell (the lake of fire) immediately after death, but rather are in a temporary realm of judgment and condemnation. However, even though unbelievers are not instantly sent to the lake of fire, their immediate fate after death is not a pleasant one. The rich man cried out, “I am in agony in this fire” (Luke 16:24).

Therefore, after death, a person resides in a “temporary” heaven or hell. After this temporary realm, at the final resurrection, a person’s eternal destiny will not change. The precise “location” of that eternal destiny is what changes. Believers will ultimately be granted entrance into the new heavens and new earth (Revelation 21:1). Unbelievers will ultimately be sent to the lake of fire (Revelation 20:11-15). These are the final, eternal destinations of all people—based entirely on whether or not they had trusted Jesus Christ alone for salvation (Matthew 25:46; John 3:36).